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IELTS应试指北:我是怎么两天上岸的

本文基于IELTS学术类Academic考试(笔试)。

虽然期末季的考试档期满满的,但为了省下2020年提价的150大洋,还是没心没肺地报考了2019年最后一场雅思。最后只剩临考两天手忙脚乱的备考,虽然得分不够满意,但还算成功上岸了。

本文将记录我的备考经验和一些应试套路。

名词解释

  • 烤鸭:雅思考生
  • 屠鸭、上岸:成功通过雅思,一般是总分6(小分5.5)以上
  • 机经:来源于雅思题库,会更新换代
  • 预测、押题、考试月份:1-4月、5-8月、9-12月是雅思的三个考试时间段,同一个时间段共用一套题库。也就是说,每个时间段越往后,题库中没有出现的题越少,预测就越准确。并且1-4月和9-12月全球只有$\frac{1}{3}$的地区有考试,机经较少预测较准,但月底官方可能会反预测换题。并且,每个时间段开始,也就是1月、5月和9月也同样是口语换题的时候,会出现大量口语新题。

知己知彼:考试流程及题型

雅思分为口试笔试两个部分,一开始报名选择的是笔试时间,口试时间需要之后在官网预约。一般口试时间在笔试的前一周到后一周内,多是weekday。口试和笔试的地点不一定相同,这个需要以准考证上的信息为准。

口试前需要在候考区候考,工作人员会根据考试时间段点名,然后同时段的考生排队签到、指纹验证、现场拍照,最后由工作人员指引进入考试房间。

笔试前同样需要签到,工作人员会给考生带上纸手环并寄存背包,之后进入候考区候考。临近考试时间会有工作人员带领到考试教室门口,在门口进行电子设备安检后进入教室还需要接受考官的身份验证英语问询,问询结束后才能入座。考试中先进行听力测试,结束后考官当即收卷并下发阅读部分的题目和答题卡;阅读部分结束后考官当即收卷并下发写作部分的题目和答题卡。在写作考试中直至考试结束前15分钟可以举手请求去洗手间。

以我的经历来看,雅思考试把所有考生都当成巨婴来对待了,所以即便是第一次考试的烤鸭也无需紧张。除了考试必备的子弹铅笔和橡皮擦,考场还准备了饮用水和一次性水杯、纸巾。从考试前的候考工作人员的带路指引,到每个小科考前考官指示如何填写答题卡,以及多次检查考生答题卡是否填写正确,基本除了答题都包办了。

关于考试中涉及的四种题型,建议考生可以在官网查看详细介绍,下面只简述大概。

口语 11~14min

雅思考试口语部分通过考生与考官之间进行一对一交流的形式对考生的英语口语水平进行考察。考官将在口语考试全程对考生表现进行评分。口语考试分为三个部分,考生可以以此使用不同的口语表达技能。雅思考试口语部分将被录音。

听力 30min+10min

听力共30分钟,并有10分钟时间将答案誊写到答题卡。在播放听力材料过程中,考生会获得读题、写下答案以及检查答案的时间。问题的排列顺序和答案在听力材料中出现的顺序一致。考生应在播放听力材料的时把答案写在问卷中。在听力材料播放完毕后考生有10分钟的时间把答案转抄到答题卡上。每段听力材料只播放一次,材料中会出现多种不同的英语口音,包括英式、澳洲式、新西兰式和美式。

题目分布:

4道大题,每道大题10个小题,每小题1分。

内容分布:

部分 话题范围 材料内容 考查内容
1 社会生活 双向交流的谈话 理解和记录特定的事实性信息
2 社会生活 有交流介绍目的的独白 理解和记录特定的事实性信息
3 教育与培训 2-4人在学术环境下的讨论 理解涉及语义猜测的对话。理解特定的信息、态度和发言者的看法。
4 教育与培训 在学术环境下的独白 理解学术论证。理解特定的信息、态度和发言者的看法。

涉及题型:

  • 完成填表/记笔记/流程图/总结
  • 选择题
  • 填空题
  • 完成句子
  • 为图表、计划或地图进行标记
  • 分类
  • 配对

阅读 60min

文章取材于《New Scientist》、《The Economist》等学术类杂志,与考生未来在大学课程中将阅读到的文章极为相似。文章还包括了非文字性的内容,比如图表、曲线图、以及画图等。文章的写作方式多样,比如记叙文、说明文或者议论文等文体。文章的内容包含即将学习本科、研究生课程或进行职业注册的考生所感兴趣的、与其认知程度相符的常见话题。其中,至少一篇文章会出现详尽的论述形式所有文章总计长度约在2000到2750字之间

题目分布:

3道大题,每道大题的小题数量不同,一共40道小题。

涉及题型:

  • 选择
  • 填空
  • 完成句子
  • 完成笔记、总结、表格或流程图
  • 对图表进行标记
  • 为段落或文章的部分选择相对应的小标题
  • 寻找信息
  • 寻找作者观点、论点或文章中的具体信息
  • 分类
  • 配对

写作 60min

部分总共用时60分钟,考生需完成两篇作文的写作要求。作文一文章字数不能少于150字,建议考生用20分钟完成。作文二文章字数不能少于250字,建议考生用40分钟完成。作文二比作文一所占的分数比例要大,如果考生没有完成这部分内容成绩将大打折扣。

评分标准:

  • 是否完成了写作要求:考生能否有效地找到信息中关键的内容并对之进行描述和写作;
  • 连贯性和结构层次:考生能否将信息和要点进行组织,信息和要点之间的联系是否清晰;
  • 词汇来源:考生使用的词汇是否广泛、准确、且适合这一部分写作的要求;
  • 语法的多样性和准确性:考生使用的语法结构是否多样、准确、且适合这一部分写作的要求。

注意:

  • 考生需将作文写在答卷上;
  • 考生应保证字数达标,否则将会被扣分。字数超出不会被扣分,但字数过长,则考生将没有充足的时间进行检查和校对、某些观点会跑题、或由于着急出现字迹过于潦草的情况。
  • 文章内容如果偏题或者跑题将被扣分;
  • 任何抄袭的作文将被重扣;
  • 文章如果不完整、内容相互没有关联将被扣分(如在任何部分使用点句或笔记形式);
  • 注意不要直接从答卷中抄下题目,这样的内容将不获评分
  • 考生须使用自己的语言进行写作;

作文一

题目中会给出一些视觉性的图表信息,考生需对这些信息或数据进行描述或解释。作文一的内容是学术性的,因此考生应该运用学术写作的文体

作文二

在作文二中,题目中会给出一个看法、问题或议题,考生需就此进行论述。根据不同的情况,考生可能需要针对问题提出解决方法、论述和证明一个看法、对比和对照论据或看法、或者评价和反驳一个论点或观点。这篇作文的内容是学术性的,因此考生应该运用正规的学术写作的、议论性的文体。考生应注意完整地阅读并回答题目中涉及的问题。考生应在写作中注意对所有的观点加以充分论述,并且所有的观点都与论点有关。考生应严密地安排选择论点、选择最为相关的论点,并在规定的时间内清晰、准确地写作成文。

备考建议

时间

如果是平常英语比较好(没有字幕也能看懂大部分的英语视频,一些简单的视频可以开1.5倍速)的同学,比如我,两天备考时间(不包括口语)虽然紧迫但也足够,因为可以省下背单词、备考听力和阅读的时间。

如果是平常不怎么接触英语环境但高考、四级也都能过的同学,一到两个月的突击也应该够了。

剩下的同学们就淘宝买题或者报班吧。

我的备考方式

App:

  • 雅思哥(花了快300大洋买了一个月的分手服务)

书:

  • 《剑桥雅思》
  • 《剑桥雅思真题精讲》
  • 《Ideas for IELTS topics》

视频:

写作批改网站:

公众号:

  • Predict Daily

真题(《剑桥雅思》)肯定是要做的,但是真题肯定是买不起的。所以在闲鱼买了一本盗版的14,剩下的9-13下载了电子版在iPad里。真题的答案就真的只是个答案而已,所以还需要搭配习题讲解(《剑桥雅思真题精讲》)来用。截止考试前,我也之作了14里面的三套题(不包括作文)和11里面的2套题(包括作文)。由于写作是我的短板,所以临考前刷了Simon的大小作文写作课和B站上大大小小的写作经验分享,也搞来了Simon的大作文素材《Ideas for IELTS topics》,不过时间有限所以每个大类挑了一两个看。

写作批改我先是用批改网和微软小英把简单的语法错误修正了,然后再提交给雅思哥批改。人工批改的目的并不是找语法错误,而是找出考生对写作的误解,这些误解不经过指出可能永远不会发现。比如我就是通过批改才知道写作有「顶行写、段落间空行」的格式,以及小作文虽然是陈述事实但由于涉及过去的时间所以要全篇使用过去式。

口语的话,由于我校有专门开雅思口语班,所以我其实口语备考了一个学期。但是我去上口语课的目的只是为了排遣周六上午无处安放的无聊,平时也不喜欢记笔记,所以更多是一些潜移默化的影响。

雅思哥上的口语题库很全,而且临近考试之前会有根据考生反馈的题目排名,这个排名很准,建议考生根据排名来复习。但是雅思哥上的口语范文有很强的误导性,里面无论是Part几,范文都是1-2分钟的,而Part1通常是考官在5分钟内问三四个大话题并衍生小问题,考生只需要回答两句话就行了(what and why),如果回答过长考官一定会打断的。考前我就因为这个误导花了整整一天时间在Part1上(一共就两天备考口语),直到当天晚上和朋友练习时被指出。Part2备考的话可以用一个答案套不同的题目,比如「一个乐于助人的人/想见面的人/经常坐飞机的人/擅长工作的人/有新奇想法的人/一个国外名人」都可以是一个人,随便找一个国外的演员或者idol就行,因为他们会捐款(乐于助人),有演出或拍摄(坐飞机),有粉丝会记录他们的语录(新奇想法)……

我的建议

  • 如果具备CET6的词汇可以不需要背单词
  • 真题9-14,时间短就11-14,并且针对自己的弱项另外刷题
    • 刷阅读题和写作题的时候定时
  • 口语尽量把题库全部准备一遍,记住Part2中每个话题要分成哪几个小点
  • 写作小作文每种类型都要准备一遍,时间紧迫的话可以战略放弃流程图,大作文尽量每种大话题都写一遍
  • 不需要买网课或者APP的会员服务,范文可以在Google或百度上搜索,通常搜索出来的会更好
  • 至少一次人工批改
  • 写作练习时积累相关的高级词汇(不是连接词,而是和话题有关的一些专有表达)

技巧

听力地图题

  1. 确定所有的选项的位置,不要漏看(比如C11 TEST1 这道题就很容易漏看A)
  2. 拼读地图中的文本信息
  3. 在地图上找到出发点you are here
  4. 如果地图中有标明东南西北,听力会出现用东南西北来定位
  5. 常见方位词:

    • over 上
    • under 下
    • above 正上方
    • below 正下方
    • beneath 与下方有接触
    • in the centre/central/middle 在中间
    • beside, by, against, near, next to, in the vicinity of, be adjacent to 旁边
    • on the opposite of, facing, far side, on the other side 对面
    • between 之间
    • in front/ahead of 在前面
    • behind of 在后面
    • in a clockwise/counter-clockwise direction 顺时针/逆时针
    • go on/along 沿着一直走
    • go back, back up 往回走
    • go straight across/to/through 径直走过
  6. 常见形容词:

    • 形状类(circular, rectangular, square, diamond, oval)
    • 比较级类
  7. 街道与街道之间的交汇处必定会出现答案。常见的交汇处用词有:
    • intersection
    • junction
    • cross
    • corner

阅读填空题

  1. 看题干中是否告知出题段落,以及题干中字数限制。
  2. 使用人名、地名、数字、大写等作为定位词。
  3. 作为答案填写的单词必须是原文原词,不能改变单复数或形式。
  4. 填空题常见名词、其次是形容词,一般不会出现副词介词等。
  5. 填写名词时一般是形容词+名词的形式,如果超出字数限制就只用填名词。
  6. 答案应该是题目中没有出现过的词。(不一定)

阅读判断题

  1. 两个两个一起做,确定原文区间。
  2. 出现somelikely这种语气保守词的句子,选T的概率在70%。

小作文

注意:

  • Don’t give opinions.
  • No conclusion but overview.
  • Don’t describe separately.
  • Mention all categories.
  • 图表中词汇的词性
  • The ‘Other’ is not important.

6种问题:

  • Line graph
  • Bar chart
  • Pie chart
  • Table
  • Diagram - comparing
  • Diagram - process

写作布局:

  • Introduction 1句话,对问题的转述
  • Overview 2句话,2个main points
  • Two Details 将数据分组

Line Graph & Bar Chart

The line chart illustrates CO2 emission for each person in 4 different European countries over the past 4 decades. (对题目的转述)

In 1967, the largest emission was in the UK, and this dominant position had been kept for 40 years. Having said that, the figure of CO2 emission per capita in UK witnessed a considerable decline in the period. In respect of Sweden, the average emission was the second most in the first 2 decades. It even peaked at just above 10 metric tons before the following drastic fall. The amount of CO2 Sweden had emitted fell so rapidly that was overtaken by that of Italy in 1987 and eventually got exceeded by that of Portugal in 2007. (详细描述1)

Compared with the average carbon dioxide emitted in the United Kingdom and Sweden, the remaining two figures both increased twofold approximately between 1967 and 2007 but got stable in the most recent 10 years. (详细描述2)

Overall, through the comparison and contrast above, the diagram clearly indicates how the CO2 emission level in the UK and Sweden decreased and that in the other 2 countries increased over the 40 years. (总体)

描述上升:
v. +to/by/from…to/xxxfold

  • 通用:rise/grow/ascend/increase/climb/go up
  • 急剧上升:soar/jump/shoot up/surge
  • 上升到顶峰:peak at
    n.
  • 通用:rise/growth
  • 急剧上升:surge/skyrocket

描述下降:
v. +to/by (half)/from…to/back to

  • 通用:decline/fall/descend/drop/decrease/dip/sink
  • 下降到低谷:(have not recovered until) bottom at
    n.
  • 通用:decline/fall
  • 急剧下降:plunge/plummet
    • representing a plunge of 13 percentage points from our first follow-up survey.

表示程度:

  • 严重:considerably/dramatically/drastically/tremendously/noticeably/substantially/swiftly/rapidly/sharply/steeply
  • 轻微:slightly/marginally/gradually/slowly

不变:

  • remain/retain constant/stable/the same level/unchanged
  • be maintained
  • be almost static
  • level off at
  • stabilize at
  • reach a plateau at
  • hover at

到达:

  • reach
  • hit
  • arrive at
  • amount to
  • stand at

大约:

  • about
  • around
  • roughly
  • just over
  • just under
  • approximately

交点:

  • overtake/exceed

Pie Charts

The pie charts indicate the statistical information regarding percentages of university students who can use other languages beside English in two separate years, 2000 and 2010. (转述)

In 2010, those who can use Spanish as their second language had the biggest proportion, taking up to 30%. Even after 10 years later, Spanish still amounted to the most part with 35%, while the proportion of French speaker among students dropped by 5% during the same period. In terms of German speakers, the scale maintained constant at 10% after a decade. (细节1)

The proportion of students who can only speak English was 20%, holding the second largest part in 2000. Having said that, it had fallen by half over the past 10 years. On the contrary, the segments of students who are able to speak another language or 2 other languages both had a rise of 5%, reached to 20% and 15% respectively. (细节2)

Overall, the diagram clearly shows the drastic shift in proportions of second language speakers in this certain English University over the 10 years. (总体)

占据:

  • constitute/represent/account for/contribute +xx%/the majority/the minority
  • 分子 accounted for 百分比 of 分母 eg: bottled water consumption in West Europe accounted for 43% of the world’s consumption
  • 地名 had the highest proportion of 分母 eg: West Europe had the world’s highest proportion of bottled water consumption
  • the proportion of 分子 was
  • 数字 of 分母

最大:

  • the largest of
  • contribute most
  • dominant position
  • larger than any other

倍数:

  • is twice as high as
  • twice than that
  • double/triple/quadruple (v.) eg: the amount of beef consumed almost doubled, rising from … to …
  • xxxfold (adj. adv.) eg: increase xxxfold from … to … / a xxxfold increase in …

比较:

  • is xxx% more than that of xxx
  • much less significantly
  • compared with/to eg: compared with 25 hours 2 years before
  • in comparison with

相似:

  • the figure for … tend to be fairly similar
  • almost the same as

排名:

  • the second largest
  • followed by that

Table

The table compares visitors volume change before and after the refurbishment of Ashdown Mesuem. And the pie charts illustrate the result of a satisfaction survey.(转述)

According to the table, the total number of visitors to this museum increased dramatically from 74,000 to 92,000 after it was renovated. Results of surveys also show that the overall level of satisfaction among visitors rose tremendously.(细节1)

Looking at the pie charts in more detail, we can see that the percentage of people who were very satisfied with the museum rose sharply from 15% to 35%, a more than double increase. Those who said that they were satisfied also climbed noticeably by 10%, reaching 40%.(细节2)

Before the refurbishment, 40% of respondents reported that they were dissatisfied with the museum, but this percentage went down to only 15% after the renovation work. Similarly, the figure for very dissatisfied visitors halved from 10% to 5%. Across these two years, the proportion of those who made no response to the survey remained the same at 5%.(总结)

大作文

4种问题:

  • Discussion
  • Opinion
  • Problem and solution
  • Two-part question

写作布局:
250个词,分成4个段落,共13句话。

  • (Before) Planning: 10min
  • Introduction:2句话 5min
  • Two main paragraphs:每段5句话100词 共20min
  • Conclusion:1句话 5min

It is often argued that the government should finance public services instead of spending its budget on arts, music and theatre. (转述题意)

Although I agree that government’s investments in public services play a very important role, I think that proper funding of arts sector is also crucial for the society.(引出自己观点)

On the one hand, the government should definitely allocate a large part of its budget on public services.(论点1)This economic sector determines the overall quality of life, ensuring that some basic services, like schools, hospitals and roads, are available to all citizens irrespective of their income or social status. Public services satisfy the primary needs of the society and thus need a proper funding, while artists and musicians are not curing diseases or building houses, so their role is secondary.(论点解释)For example, any country can live without music concerts, but absence of medicine will create significant problems.(论据)That’s why the government should adequately finance public services in the first place.(重申论点)

On the other hand, arts, music and theatre are not a waste of money, since they are an integral part of the society’s cultural and intellectual development and amusement.(论点2) Firstly, art and music draw people’s attention to diverse phenomena and represent the inward significance of things. Quite often a single drawing, piece or song can exhort myriads of people to reconsider their attitude towards some situation. This way, art serves as a major source of nation’s personal and intellectual development. Moreover, visiting museums, watching movies and listening to music are common ways of relaxation and entertainment.(论点解释)The question doesn’t ask us to give examples, plus we’ve already written a lot in this paragraph, so we’ll skip this point.(论据)Thus, art sector is also important for the society and should not be neglected.(重申论点)

To conclude, though I agree that the government should allocate a large part of its budget on such urgent needs of the society like public services, I think that arts, music and theatre should also be financed since they play an important role in people’s development and entertainment.(结尾)

本文作者: rhinoc

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